Fungi of the Greater Antilles



Short name: 


Data set ID: 



Over 20 researchers and cooperators were enlisted to produce a survey of the basidiomycetes of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Dominican Republic, and Jamaica. This included all basidiomycetes except rusts and smuts. These islands in the Greater Antilles were chosen for this survey for several reasons. There was previously very limited documentation on macrobasidiomycete diversity for these islands, although recent studies had shown that at least 15% of the species were undescribed. This project complemented previous and ongoing surveys in Mexico, Costa Rica, and Venezuela. The information gained from this project will ultimately help us to understand differences in colonization and rates of speciation among different groups of basidiomycetes in island chains. The investigators in this project discovered at least 75 new species and varieties so far, as well as several new genera (Pegler et al. 1998; Samuels & Lodge 1996) and one possible new family or order (see 'Aliens' under GENUS). Various cooperators have graciously provided identification of ascomycetes, myxomycetes, and mitosporic fungi, which are also included in the database.

Date Range: 
1983-10-01 00:00:00 to 2003-01-29 00:00:00

Additional Project roles: 

Name: Miguel C Leon Role: Data Manager


lterdb86-Fungi of the Greater Antilles

DATA SET METHODS: The data contained here include all those in the database of the Center for Forest Mycology Research, USDA-Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, PO Box 1377, Luquillo, PR 00773, including basidiomycetes, ascomycetes, hyphomycetes, myxomycetes, and a few VA mycorrhizal fungi and water molds. The collections from October 1983-1993 were logged into the database with funds from a supplement grant to the LUQ-LTER site for herbarium improvement. A few of the records are from publications of our collaborators. This version was produced 1 March 2001. It is not completely free of errors. Some of the identifications are field determinations, and these are usually marked with "cf." after the name.

Macroscopic features

Most of the basidiomycete and macro-ascomycete collections were annotated and photographed and/or drawn when fresh, then dried on low heat (35 C). Existence of photographs is usually recorded in the PHOTOS field, Scanned photos (JPEG) will be e-mailed upon request. Over 300 photographs are presented on the project's web site at SUNY CORTLAND: Capitalized color names are from Ridgway as reproduced by Smithe (1975).

Microscopic features

Microstructures were studied using hand-cut sections mounted in aqueous 3% KOH or Melzer’s reagent after rehydration in 70% alcohol. The spore dimensions recorded in the NOTES field are based upon 10-20 spores. Spore measurements of basidiomycetes made at CFMR may be 0.5-1 µm longer than the actual spore because the apiculus was included. Amyloid reactions may be listed as 'J+' for ascomycetes annotated by Sabine Huhndorf.


The FAMILY name that is listed first for each collection is generally from the 8th edition of Ainseworth & Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi (Hawksworth et al. 1995). The placement of a few ascomycetes is according to M. Barr -Bigelow and S. Huhndorf, while some recent molecular advancements in systematics of basidiomycetes in the Agaricales (Moncalvo et al. 2000, Thorn et al. 2000) were also incorporated.

This database is a working tool rather than an authoritative reference for names, so emphasis has been placed on having related species appear together. TO FIND SYNONYMS AND ACCEPTED NAMES, see the CABI Bioscience: Recombinations are often made piecemeal, covering some but not all species belonging to a genus. Consequently, some of the GENUS-SPECIES combinations that appear in this database may not have been published as yet (e.g., Cuphophyllus buccinulus and C. ferrugineoalbus), in which case, look for 'ined.' after the AUTHORITY. Note that with regard to GENUS in the database: all species of Hygrocybe previously assigned to Camarophyllus are listed under Cuphophyllus; the Purae/Ianthinae group has not yet been changed to reflect the transfer from the genus Mycena to the genus Prunulus; most of the Collybia spp. have not been changed to the segregate genera; all species of Pouzaromyces are listed under Pouzarella; and Inopilus has not been changed to Inocephalus. Species of Entoloma sensu lato that have been identified are usually listed under the segragate genera (Alboleptonia, Eccilia, Entoloma, Inopilus, Leptonia, and Nolanea). In some records, 'Entoloma' is enclosed in single quotes followed by the segragate genus in parenthases. Refer also to comments below on "searching by FAMILY or GENUS".


The data in each geographically delimited file are sorted by GENUS, SPECIES, and VARIETY, in this order. Some collections have not yet been identified beyond group or family; these appear at the front of each data file.

If you do not find a particular GENUS-SPECIES combination in the alphabetical listing, you will need to look under an alternative genus, species synonym, or download the ascii file into a database and use the 'find' function. The most effective method for searching is to use a combined search for 'FAMILY contains ___', and 'SPECIES contains ___', leaving off the last few letters of the species name. TO FIND SYNONYMS AND ACCEPTED NAMES, check the CABI Bioscience website at:

Searching by FAMILY and GENUS is often complicated by the frequent inclusion of two or three names in the same field. For example, the family for Antrodia spp. is listed as Coriolaceae/Polyporaceae, and the family for Lentinus spp. as Lentinaceae/Polyporaceae. The preferred name is generally listed first. If you don't find the genus you are looking for, try looking under an alternative genus or download the file. If you need to search by a GENUS that may not be the first one listed or by a FAMILY, GROUP, or CATEGORY, or you will need to download the ascii file into a database program and use it's sort and search functions. In general, it is better to use a find function with the following format: "Field Contains ___". Note that not all records have been classified into CATEGORIES, and that RUST fungi have not yet been transferred to the GROUP Heterobasidiomycetes, and they are instead listed as Miscellaneous Basidiomycetes.

For searching by GROUP or CATEGORY see the list of values under VARIABLES below.

"GENUS" in quotation marks indicates that the species has been inappropriately classified in this genus, but the best of the published names at the moment. Often, this is followed by (GENUS), which indicates where the species should probably be placed. The quotation marks do not affect the alphabetical sorting.

Additional Information for Using this Database

'SPECIES' or 'VARIETY' names in single quotes usually indicate a nom. prov. (i.e., sp. nov., var. nov., or comb. nov.) that has not yet been published or is in press. An indication of the status can be found after the species name or after the AUTHORITY, or in the field NOV.

The name(s) in the AUTHORITY field corresponds to the combination of the first genus and species listed.

Collection and collector numbers

There are often several numbers associated with each record, and one or both are reported in publications. Each collection within a file has been assigned a unique database number under COLLECTION NUMBER, and this number preceded by the 2-3 letter COUNTRY CODE or ISLAND CODE (the latter in the case of the VI file) forms a unique identifier. If there is a collector number, it is located in the ALTERNATE NUMBER field. A second unique identifier is formed by the combination of the person's name (or their initials) in the ALTERNATE LEDGER field followed by the ALTERNATE NUMBER if the collector number represents an entry in a ledger book rather than a daily or trip number. Note that the person referred to in ALTERNATE LEDGER is not necessarily the same as the COLLECTOR because specimens were often exchanged among experts after returning from the field. In a few cases of collections made before 1994 (when the electronic database was established), the same collection number was accidentally assigned to two different collections. In this case, one of the records was reassigned a new COLLECTION NUMBER, or a decimal was added to the collection number if both of the collections had already been described in publications or deposited in other herbaria. If a collection number has been changed, the previous collection number will appear in the ALTERNATE NUMBER field.


In general, full descriptions are entered only for collections that were logged in at CFMR-PR. If you are searching for records of an unknownSPECIES with particular characteristics, you can download the ascii file and search the NOTES field for collections that were logged in at CFMR-PR. For example, you could search for all Mycena with yellow (yll.) or orange (or.) in the description. Refer to the abbreviations used in NOTES in the following table.

ABBREVIATIONS. To save space, we often use the following abbreviations in the NOTES field:

yellow yll. broad or broadly br.
orange or. slight or slightly sl.
brown brn. diameter diam.
black blk. circa, near ca.
white wht. at @
small sm. center cntr.
large lrg. accompanied accomp.
membranous membr. with w/
infundibuliform Infundib. more or less +/-, ±
lamellae lam.    

Most of the colors that were recorded at CFMR-PR were compared to Smithe (1975), which is a reproduction of some of the Ridgway colors. A table with the Hamley notation of the color and hue of the Smithe guide swatch, the original Ridgway name, the Hamley notation for the original Ridgway color, and a general description of the color are given in the table below. The color names are alphabetized by the name used in Smithe, with the modifiers (Light and Dark) moved to the end and separated by a comma. (View Colors)

Smithe Color Name Hamley Not. for Smithe Ridgway Name Hamley Not. for 


Descriptive Name
    Ivory 1-9 Y 8-10/2-4.5 Pale Yellow
    Maize Yellow 1-7 Y 8-10/5-8 Light buffy yellow
    Ivory Yellow=Ivory 1Y-7Y 8-10/2-5 pale yellow
    Shell Pink 5 R -5 YR 8/2 Pale Yellowish Pink, Greyish Yellowish Pink
Amber 5.1 YR 3.97/7.3 Amber Brown 5.8 YR 4.1/6.0 Strong Brown
Beige 4.6 YR 6.84/3.2   ???? Moderate Yellowish Pink
Blackish Neutral Gray N 2.62/ Blackish Slate, Dusky Neutral Gray N 2.5 to 2.0  
Blue Black 3.7 PB 2.56/3.4     Dark Blue
Brussles Brown 6.2 YR 4.15/4.2 Brussels Brown 3 YR-8 YR 4/4 Moderate Brown
Buff (124) 0.9 Y 7.77/5.5     Light Yellowish Brown
Buff (24) 0.7 Y 5.98/7.4 Ochraceous Buff 9.6 YR 6.7/6.6 Light Yellowish Brown
Burnt Umber 2.5 YR 3.0/2.5 Burnt Umber 2.0 YR 3.2/2.4 Grayish reddish brown
Chamoise 1.5 Y 8.30/5.5 Chamoise 1-7Y 6.5-8/6-8 Moderate Yll.,lite ochre yll.
Cinnamon (123 A) 8.8 YR 5.36/6.0 Cinnamon 7.0 YR 5.8/5.7 Dark Orange Yellow
Cinnamon (39) 8.1 YR 6.04/6.0 Cinnamon 7.0 YR 5.8/5.7 LIght Yellowish Brown
Clay Color (123 B) 9.6 yr 6.44/7.5     Dark orange yellow
Clay Color (26) 9.3 YR 5.51/5.1 Clay Color 9.2 YR 5.7/5.8 Moderate Yellowish Brown
Cream Color 3.4 Y 8.40/4.2 Cream Color 4.3 Y 8.2/3.7 Pale Yellow
Dark Drab 0.5 Y 4.23/2.6     Grayish Yellowish Brown
Dark Yellow (88) 1Y-7Y 5.5-6.5/5-8   Yellow with black
Drab 9.1 YR 5.44/2.8 Drab 8.8 YR 5.1/2.1 Grayish Yellowish Brown
Drab Gray 0.6 Y 6.82/2.4     LIght Grayish Yellowish Brown
Fawn Color 7.5 YR 5.10/3.2 Wood Brown 7.6 YR 6.0/3.0 Light Pinkish Drab Brown
Flaxflower Blue 6.6 PB 6.06/7.4 Flaxflower Blue 7-9 PB 4.5-10/8.5-12.5 Light Purplish Blue
Flesh Color 0.8 YR 6.95/5.9 Flesh Color 2.5 YR 6.9/6.4 Moderate Yellowish Pink
Fuscous = Fuscous Brown 5.0 YR 3.04/1.5 Dusky Drab 5.0 YR 3.5/1.0 Grayish Brown
Glaucous (Gray, 79) 5.0 Y 4.98/1.0 Glaucous-Gray 4.6 B 6.4/0.6 Light Olive Gray
Glaucous (Gray, 80) 6.5 Y 5.90/1.2 Glaucous 8.9 GY 7.6/1.9 Medium gray with yellow brown
Gray Yellow Brown (80) 8YR-1Y 5.5-7.5/1.5-3    
Hair Brown 9.9 Y 3.25/2.0 Hair Brown 1-8 YR 2.5-4.5/0.5-1.25 Brownish gray
Indigo 5.0 PB 3.14/3.0 Indigo Blue 5.0 PB 3.0/3.0 Grayish Blue
Indigo Blue 7.3 PB 2.00/4.5     Grayish purplish blue
Light Drab (119C) 0.9 Y 5.83/2.5 Light Drab 8YR-1Y 5.5-7.5/1.5-2.5 Light grayish yellowish brown
Lilac (76) 4.0 P 6.90/5.0 Lilac 5.4 P 6.6/6.6 Light purple
Mars Brown 4.7 YR 3.30/4.0 Mars Brown   Med-dark yellow brown
Mauve (75) 4.3 P 5.14/7.4 Mauve 3.5 P 5.4/9.5 Moderate purple
Mikado Brown (121C) 7.4 YR 4.85/5.2 Mikado Brown   Light pinkish brown
Natal Brown 5.2 YR 3.61/2.6 Natal Brown 3YR-8YR 2.5-4.5/1.5-2.5 Med-dark gray brown
Neutral Gray, Dark N 4.04/ Slate Gray, Deep Neutral Gray N 4.0 Dark gray
Neutral Gray, Light N 6.01/ Gull Gray, Pale Neutral Gray N 6.0 Light gray
Neutral Gray, Medium N 4.90/ Dark Gull Gray, Neutral gray N 5.0 Medium gray
Neutral Gray, Pale N 7.41/ Light Gull Gray, Pallid Neutral Gray  N 6.5 Pale gray
Olive Brown (28) 9.9 yr 3.91/2.1 Sepia 10.0 YR 3.5/2.4 Grayish yellowish brown
Orange Yellow 9.9 YR 7.80/13.5 Cadmium Yellow 9.5 YR 6.9/12.2 Strong orange yellow
Pale Horn Color 2.5 Y 8.08/3.5     Pale yellow
Pale Pinkish Buff 8.8 YR 7.55/4.3 Pale Pinkish Buff 7YR-1Y 7.5-10/3-6 Pale yellow flesh color
Pale Yellow Brown     8 YR-1Y 6.5/2 Light Grayish Yellowish Brown
Peach Red Color     7R-2 YR 6/8 Moderate Reddish Orange
Plumbeous (Gray, 78) 4.5 PB 4.00/1.5 Plumbeous 7.5 PB 5.8/1.3 Dark bluish gray
Plumbeous (medium, 87) 0.3 PB 4.67/0.8     Bluish gray
Pratt's Rufus (140) 0.8 YR 4.55/9.2     Moderate reddish orange
Prouts Brown 6.8 YR 3.40/3.3 Prouts Brown 6.5-6.8YR 3.5-4.2/2.8-3.8 Med-dark pinkish brown
Purple Black      9P-3RP 3/5 Dark Reddish Purple
Purple Black, Deep     9P-3RP 1/4 Very dark reddish purple
Raw Umber (123) 0.4 Y 4.45/4.4     Moderate yellowish brown
Raw Umber (223) 5.6 YR 2.93/2.2     Dark gray pinkish brown
Raw Umber (23) 7.5 YR 3.5/3.0 Prout's Brown 6.5 YR 3.5/2.8 Moderate brown
Russet (34) 4.8 YR 4.05/3.8 Russet 5.0 YR 3.8/4.0 Moderate brown
Russet Vinaceous, Light 1.0 YR 6.16/4.9 Light Russet Vinaceous 8R-3YR 4.5-6.5/2.5-4.5 Light pinkish brown
Salmon Color (106) 1.9 YR 6.84/8.9 Salmon Color   Strong yellowish pink
Salmon Color (6) 5.0 YR 6.90/6.0 Salmon Color 4.0 YR 7.1/5.6 Moderate yellowish pink
Sayal Brown (223C) 8.2 YR 5.63/4.6 Sayal Brown   Light yellowish brown
Sepia (119) 8.8 YR 2.20/0.5 Sepia   Dark grayish yellowish brown
Sepia ( 219) 4.9 YR 2.72/1.4 Sepia   Brownish gray
Straw Yellow 5.0 Y 7.94/6.2 Straw Yellow 5.7 Y 8.2/5.0 Moderate yellow
Tawny Olive 9.6 YR 6.71/4.5 Tawny Olive   Light yellowish brown
True Cinnamon 5.0 YR 5.18/5.4     LIght reddish brown
Vandyke Brown (121) 8.5 YR 3.01/1.4 Van Dyke Brown   Dark grayish yellowish brown
Vandyke Brown (221) 3.3 y 2.89/1.1     Brownish gray
Verona Brown(223B) 6.3 YR 4.09/4.5 Verona Brown   Moderate brown
Vinaceous 2.5 R 6.15/7.1 Vinaceous 2.5R-10RP 6.4-6.5/4.8-7.0 Deep wine pink
Vinaceous Pink (221C) 0.3 YR 5.08/5.2 Pinkish Vinaceous 6R-7YR 6.5-8/3-7 Pink with a purple tint




Time Period: 


EML is valid: